Audits - Reviews - Compilations

Stockholders, creditors, and private investors often need assurance that the financial statements accurately represent the true financial position of a company.

Your stockholders, creditors, or private investors have different levels of risk tolerance, and we provide three levels of assurance to meet your needs.

Audit - Highest Level of Assurance

An audit provides the highest level of assurance. An audit is a methodical review and objective examination of the financial statements, including the verification of specific information as determined by the auditor or as established by general practice.

Our work includes an evaluation of internal controls, testing of selected transactions, and communication with third parties. Based on our findings, we issue a report on whether the financial statements are fairly stated and free of material misstatements.

An Audit allows you to...

  • Satisfy stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers and pressure groups, as well as the investing community, as to the credibility of published information.
  • Facilitate the payment of corporate tax, goods and services tax, and other taxes on-time and accurately, thereby avoiding interest, penalties, and investigations.
  • Comply with banking covenants.
  • Facilitate the purchase and sale of businesses.

Here's what you get...

You get the highest level of assurance because we go outside your company to obtain more information. Typically, we'll have written communication with:

  • Your customers, to check outstanding receivable balances,
  • Your banks, to confirm cash or debt balances and terms,
  • Your vendors, to verify outstanding payable balances, and
  • Your attorneys, for information on pending or threatened legal action.

We also perform physical inspections by observing your inventory counting methods and perform test counts. We document and test each operating cycle, including sales and cash receipts, expenses and cash disbursements, and payroll. 

Review - Limited Assurance

Less extensive than an audit, but more involved than a compilation, a review engagement consists primarily of analytical procedures we apply to the financial statements, and various inquiries we make of your company's management team. If the financial statements or supporting information appear inconsistent or otherwise questionable, we may need to perform additional procedures in accordance with professional standards.

A review doesn't require us to evaluate your company's internal controls, verify data with third parties, or physically inspect assets. Rather, a review report expresses limited assurance on whether or not we are aware of any material modifications for the financial statements to be in conformity with the applicable accounting principles. Reviewed financial statements must include all required footnotes and other disclosures.

Why might a business request a review engagement? It can be a good middle ground, providing the advantages of a CPA's technical expertise without the work and expense of an audit.

Compilation - No Assurance

In compiling financial statements for a client, we present information that is the "representation of management" and expresses no opinion or assurance on the statements. Compilations don't require inquiries of management or analytical procedures. Instead, we rely on our knowledge of accounting principles and a general understanding of your business.

Which Report Should You Use?

Each type of financial statement report may suit specific circumstances, depending on your needs or requirements from your bank or other parties.

Understanding each report's unique strengths and weaknesses can help you choose the most appropriate one. Please call if you have questions about which type of report is right for you.



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